Ana sayfa GNU/Linux GNU/Linux Sistemlerde Dosya ve Dizin Yapısı

GNU/Linux Sistemlerde Dosya ve Dizin Yapısı

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Merhaba arkadaşlar. Bu yazımda GNU/Linux bir sistemin (Ubuntu, Fedora, Linux Mint…) dosya ve dizin yapısını inceleyeceğim. GNU/Linux dağıtımı olan işletim sistemlerinin tamamında dosya ve dizin yapıları aynıdır.

/ (Root-Kök) Dizini

Diğer tüm dizinleri kapsayan, en büyük ebeveyn dizin / (root) dizinidir. Altında 15-16 dizin bulunur. / (root) dizininin silinmesi tüm sisteminizin silinmesi demektir.

/bin Dizini

bin ismi binary (ikili) nin kısaltmasından gelir. Burada çalıştırılabilir komutların derlenmiş (binary yapısında) halleri bulunur. Sistem için kritik önem taşır ve silinmesi durumunda sisteme herhangi bir komut verilemez.

/boot Dizini

Açılış dosyalarını ve Kerneli (Kernel’in ne olduğundan başka bir yazıda bahsedeceğim) barındırır. Silinmesi durumunda sistem çalışmaz hale gelir.

/dev Dizini

dev ismi Devices yani Cihazlar kelimesinin kısaltmasından gelir. Sisteme bağlı cihazların dosyalarının bulunduğu yerdir. Her cihazın bir numarası vardır. Bu numaralar rastgele değil daha önceden belirlenen ve yeni cihazlar çıktıkça güncellenen devices.txt ye göre verilir. Ayrıntılı bilgi için bu adrese bakabilirsiniz.

/etc Dizini

Sistem ayar dosyalarının bulunduğu dizindir. Herhangi bir ayar yapılacağı zaman genelde bu dizin altında değişiklikler yaparız.

/home Dizini

Kullanıcıların ev dizinlerinin tutulduğu dizindir. İçindeki bir dizinin silinmesi durumunda silinen dizinin sahibi olan kullanıcı dosyalarını kaybetmiş olur. Geri döndürülmesi mümkündür ancak biraz uğraştırıcıdır.

/lib Dizini

Kütüphane ve Kernel Modüllerinin tutulduğu dizindir. Silinmesi durumunda sistem çalışmaz hale gelebilir.

/mnt Dizini

Geçici mount edilmiş dosya sistemlerinin mount edildiği dizindir.

/media Dizini

Çıkarılabilir medya cihazlarının mount edildiği dizindir.

/opt Dizini

Kendi kütüphane dosyaları ile gelen uygulamaların kütüphane dosyalarının saklandığı dizindir. Silinmesi halinde yüklü uygulamaların bazıları hata verebilir.

/sbin Dizini

Sistem çalıştırılabilir dosyalarının saklandığı dizindir.

/srv Dizini

srv services kelimesinin kısaltmasından gelir. Sistem tarafından sunulan servis dosyalarının bulunduğu dizindir.

/tmp Dizini

Geçici dosyaların bulunduğu dizindir. Bu dizinde root haricindeki her kullanıcı sadece kendi dosyalarında değişiklik hakkına sahiptir.

/usr Dizini

Çalıştırılabilir dosyalar, kütüphaneler , dökümantasyonlar ve kaynak kodları içerebilen dizindir. Kullanıcı uygulamalarının depolandığı dizindir.

/var Dizini

Variable yani değişken sözcüğünün kısaltmasından adını almıştır. Loglar gibi sürekli içindeki bilgilerin güncelleneceği dosyaların bulunmasının amaçlandığı dizindir.

/root Dizini

/ (root) dizini ile karıştırılmamalıdır. Root (En Yetkin) Kullanıcısının ev  dizinidir.

/proc Dizini

Sistem ile ilgili bilgileri alabileceğimiz dosyaların bulunduğu dizindir. Dizinin içi aslında boştur. Sistem çalıştığı zaman sistemin özellikleri dosya olarak görünür.

/lost+found Dizini

Sistemde kaybolan dosyaların tutulduğu dizindir. Herhangi bir sebepten dosyanız kaybolursa bu dizine bakmakta fayda var.

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