Ana sayfa Bilgi Güvenliği Bilgi Güvenliği ve Siber Güvenlik arasındaki farklar nelerdir ?

Bilgi Güvenliği ve Siber Güvenlik arasındaki farklar nelerdir ?


Bu iki kavram “Siber Güvenlik” ve “Bilgi Güvenliği” genellikle güvenlik terminolojisinde eş anlamlı olarak kullanılmaktadır ve güvenlik uzmanları arasında çok fazla karışıklık yaratmaktadır. İkisi de günümüzde çok yakından ilişkilidir. Bazı bilgi güvenliği uzmanları siber güvenliğin bilgi güvenliğinin alt kümesi olduğunu düşünürken, diğerleri bunun tersini düşünüyor. Peki iki kavram aslında neyi kapsıyor ?

Veri güvenliği ile başlayalım. Veri güvenliği, verileri güvenceye almakla ilgilidir. Şimdi başka soruların ortaya çıkmaması için şunu açıklayalım, veri ve bilgi birbiriyle ilişkili ama farklı kavramlardır. Her bilgi bir veridir fakat her veri bir bilgi olmayabilir. Veri bir bağlamda yorumlandığında ve anlam verildiğinde bilgi olarak çağrılabilir. Örneğin, “23051993″ veridir ve eğer bu verinin bir kişinin doğum tarihi olduğunu biliyorsak, o zaman bilgi demektir. Yani Bilgi, bir anlamı olan verileri ifade eder.

Siber güvenlik, bilişim ve iletişim teknolojileri aracılığıyla savunmasız olan dijital sistemleri, bilgileri, verileri güvenceye almakla ilgilidir. Ayrıca verilerin saklandığı, depolandığı ve verilerin güvenliğini sağlamak için teknolojilerin kullanıldığı bir alandır. Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerinin korunmasına ilişkin siber güvencenin bir kısmı, yani donanım ve yazılım, BIT(Bilişim ve İletişim Teknolojileri) güvenliği olarak bilinir. Kısaca Siber Güvenlik, siber uzayların siber saldırılardan korunma ve koruma yeteneği olarak tanımlayabiliriz.

Oysa Bilgi Güvenliği, genellikle bilgilerin gizliliğini(confidentiality), bütünlüğünü(integrity), erişilebilirliğini(availability) sağlamak için bilgi ve bilgi sistemlerinin yetkisiz erişim, kullanım, ifşa, bozulma, değişiklik veya imhasından korunmasıdır.

Bilgi Güvenliği, fiziksel veya bilgisayarlı olsun, bilgi ve bilgilerin korunmasıyla ilgilenen daha geniş bir alandır.

Siber Güvenlik ise siber uzayın korunması ve onu herhangi bir suçla (CIA-Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability ilgili ya da ilgili olmayan) karşı kullanmasıyla ilgilidir.

Şimdi, bu iki kavramla ilgili tüm kafa karışıklığı, günümüzde bilgilerin çoğunun elektronik olarak kaydedilmesi, siber uzay içerisinde yer alması ve siber saldırıların çoğunun gizli bilgileri ifşa etmek, bütünlüğüne zarar vermek veya yetkili kullanıcılara erişimi engellemek için yürütüldüğünden kaynaklanmaktadır.

Buna göre, elektronik ortamdaki bilgilerin güvenliği tehdit altındaysa ve bunu kategorize etmemiz isteniyorsa, incelediğimizde “Bilgi” tehdit altındadır dolayısıyla Bilgi Güvenliği ile doğrudan ilgilidir. Fakat bilgi siber uzay içerisinde yer aldığı için aynı zamanda Siber Güvenlik kapsamına girer. Bu durum Siber Güvenliği, Bilgi Güvenliğinin alt kümesi haline getirir.

Şöyle bir senaryo düşündüğümüzde bilgi tehdidini içermeyen siber suçlar, Bilgi Güvenliğinin bir parçası değil, aslında Siber Güvenliğin bir endişe kaynağıdır. Aynı şekilde siber uzayı içermeyen bilgi tehditleri Bilgi Güvenliği kapsamına girer, Siber Güvenlik kapsamına girmez.

Şu görselin daha açıklayıcı olacağını düşünüyorum.

Hatta biraz daha görseli detaylandırıp, Türkçeleştirmek gerekirse:

Kısaca bu tanımlara göre, siber güvenlik, siber alemdeki her şeyin güvenliği ile ilgilidir. Bilgi güvenliği ise, bu alandan bağımsız olarak bilgilerin güvenliği ile ilgilidir. Siber güvenlikte “bilginin güvenliği” konusu çok kritik önem taşıdığı için, bilgi güvenliğinin siber güvenlik için temel taşlarını oluşturduğunu söyleyebiliriz.

Ek olarak, bu kavramların kullanımı ile ilgili kültürel ve hatta politik yönleri de vardır. Örneğin, Amerika Birleşik Devletler’inde genellikle “siber güvenlik” yaygın olarak kullanırken, Rusya’da ise “bilgi güvenliği” söylemi daha ön plandadır.



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